How is soap made chemistry?
This process of making soap is known as saponification. The common procedure involves heating animal fat or vegetable oil in lye (sodium hydroxide), therefore hydrolyzing it into carboxylate salts (from the combination of carboxylic acid chains with the cations of the hydroxide compound) and glycerol.
Soap is created by mixing fats and oils with a base. A similar process is used for making detergent which is also created by combining chemical compounds in a mixer. Humans have used soap for millennia. Evidence exists for the production of soap-like materials in ancient Babylon around 2800 BC.
In this experiment, you will make soap from a fat or an oil by heating it with sodium hydroxide. You will precipitate the soap by adding it to a concentrated salt solution, and then you will collect the solid soap using vacuum filtration. You will then test the soap you made for its pH and foaming ability.
vegetable oil or Animal fat + Sodium hydroxide Saponification Glycerol + Sodium salt of fatty acid(Soap)
"In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid. Soaps are mainly used for washing, bathing, and cleaning. Soaps for cleansing are obtained by treating vegetable or animal oils and fats with a strongly alkaline solution.
Soap is a salt of an alkali metal, such as sodium or potassium, with a mixture of “fatty” carboxylic acids. It is the result of a chemical reaction, called saponification, between triglycerides and a base such as sodium hydroxide.
The hydrophobic end of the soap molecules surround the pepper (germs) with the hydrophilic end pointing away from the pepper (germs). In the experiment, pepper was quickly washed away when soap was added to the bowl. The same thing happens with germs when we wash our hands.
When you mix soap with dirt and water, the soap molecules break up the dirt and the bacteria it contains by forming circles around individual droplets—the fatty chains go in the middle facing the dirt, while the salt balloon tops form the outside of the circle facing the surrounding water.
A soap molecule, which looks like a tadpole, has a hydrophilic (water-loving) head and a hydrophobic (water-hating) tail. The water-hating part of the soap wants to get away from the water. If the virus is on a person's hands, that water-hating tail is drawn to that fatty layer. It pries its way in.
Saponification can be defined as a “hydration reaction where free hydroxide breaks the ester bonds between the fatty acids and glycerol of a triglyceride, resulting in free fatty acids and glycerol,” which are each soluble in aqueous solutions.
What is the hypothesis of making soap?
This is the hypothesis: If the type of soap is changed from liquid to bar, then the amount of time the soap will last will increase. He used a bar graph to display the results. On the "x" axis, he listed the type of soap (liquid and bar).
The organic part of natural soap is a negatively-charged, polar molecule. Its hydrophilic (water-loving) carboxylate group (-CO2) interacts with water molecules via ion-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding.
Pepper is hydrophobic or doesn't dissolve or mix into water. Since water molecules are strongly attracted to each other, or have a high surface tension, it keeps the pepper afloat. Adding soap breaks down the surface tension and as the water molecules spread out away from the soap, they brings the pepper with them.
Conclusion: We can see how surface tension in the water works when we touch the soapy toothpick to the peppery water. Pepper is hydrophobic, meaning it repels water. Because there is surface tension on the top of the water, the pepper floats on the top of the water and doesn't soak up any of the water.
There are 3 key ingredients in soap: oil or fat, lye and water.
Soap is formed by mixing fats or oils with strong bases, such as sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide is also called lye. The traditional way to make lye is to leach ashes with water. The ashes contain substantial amounts of sodium hydroxide, which dissolves in the water, forming a solution of sodium hydroxide.
CONCLUSION. Both soaps and detergents share a critical chemical property- they are surfactants. In other words they reduce the surface tension of water.
Soap is the Result of Saponification
At the heart of all cold process soap recipes are two main ingredients: oil and lye, also known by its chemical name sodium hydroxide. Your soap-making recipe will, through a simple but controlled process, chemically bond these two ingredients into a new compound – soap!
Every bar of soap in the world is made with an acid (fat) and an alkali (lye). The fat can be animal fat or plant based such as olive oil. The alkali most commonly used is sodium hydroxide (lye). When you mix oil with lye this will create a process called saponification.
The three main constituents of soap are Lye (Sodium hydroxide), coconut oil and water.